Research Focus of the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
The U.S. Department of Labor (USDOL or the Department) has produced this tenth edition of the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor in accordance with the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA), as amended. The TVPRA requires USDOL’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB or the
Bureau) to “develop and make available to the public a list of goods from countries that [ILAB] has reason to believe are produced by forced labor or child labor in violation of international standards” (TVPRA List or the List; 22 U.S.C. § 7112(b)(2)(C)). It also requires submission of the TVPRA List to the United States Congress not later than December 1, 2014, and every 2 years thereafter (22 U.S.C. § 7112(b)(3)).
The Frederick Douglass Trafficking Victims Prevention and Protection Reauthorization Act of 2018 expanded ILAB’s mandate to require the TVPRA List to include, “to the extent practicable, goods that are produced with inputs that are produced with forced labor or child labor” (22 U.S.C. § 7112(b)(2)(C)).
The TVPRA directs ILAB “to work with persons who are involved in the production of goods on the list…to create a standard set of practices that will reduce the likelihood that such persons will produce goods using [child labor or forced labor],” and “to consult with other departments and agencies of the United States Government to reduce forced child labor internationally and ensure that products made by forced labor and child labor in violation of international standards are not imported into the United States” (22 U.S.C. § 7112(b)(2)(D)–(E)).
The research methodology used to compile the TVPRA List is based on ILAB’s Procedural Guidelines. ILAB continues to carry out research for future editions of the TVPRA List.
In researching child labor, ILAB focused on children under age 18. For forced labor, the research covered workers of all ages. The population included persons in foreign countries only, as directed by statute. Populations within the United States were not included in this study.
In developing the TVPRA List, ILAB generally relied on sources that are no more than 5 years old at the time of receipt. This policy is to ensure consistency with other ILAB reporting on international child labor.
Type of Work
Research covered all economic activity for adults and children in the production of goods, including formal and informal sector production and goods produced for personal and family consumption. Examples
of informal sector activity include day labor hired without a contract, small-scale farming and fishing, artisanal mining and quarrying, and manufacturing work performed in home-based workshops. Some illicit goods also are included in the TVPRA List; this is not intended to condone or legitimize the production or consumption of these goods.
To make determinations about the List, ILAB relies on a wide variety of publicly available primary and secondary sources. Primary sources included surveys carried out by foreign governments in conjunction with the International Labor Organization (ILO); site visits and data gathered by ILAB staff and other U.S. government personnel; and quantitative and qualitative studies carried out by a variety of governmental and non-governmental entities, including academic institutions (see Appendix 5 for the full TVPRA List Methodology). Global Data on Forced Labor*
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