Given the underground nature of trafficking, the consequences of trafficking are hidden and difficult to see. Trafficked persons often do not have limited access to basic necessities such as safety, food, sleep, hygiene, and medical care. The effects of trafficking vary depending on the type of trafficking and the specific situation.

Given that trafficking is based on the exploitation of individuals, all victims of trafficking may be subject to physical, psychological, and social impacts. Victims of trafficking often experience harsh physical impacts due to excessive work or the use of force by traffickers. In addition, victims may be exposed to serious health risks, such as HIV/AIDS, as well as serious mental health risks. Anxiety, insecurity, fear, and trauma are all products of trafficking. Several studies indicate high levels of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in former trafficked persons. Trafficking can also lead to cognitive impairment, memory loss, depression, and even suicide.

Trafficked minors are all the more vulnerable due to their age. Trafficking may greatly impact children’s emotional, physical, and overall psychological development.

Trafficked persons may also experience social ostracism. Trafficked persons are often isolated from their social circles, leaving individuals unable to engage socially or reach out for help. Victims may also be trafficked internationally, and therefore may not be able to engage due to a lack of linguistic capability or geographic and cultural familiarity. Individuals specifically trafficked for sex have described facing stigma and other negative responses during and after their trafficking experience, especially from friends and family members.    

Additional Resources: 
-UNODC and UNGIFT: An Introduction to Human Trafficking: Vulnerability, Impact, and Action.
International Migration: Economics of Human Trafficking.
Child Development Perspectives: The Impact of Trafficking on Children: Psychological and Social Policy Perspectives
-American Psychological Association: Report of the Task Force on Trafficking of Women and Girls
-US Department of State: Addressing the Internal Wounds: The Psychological Aftermath of Human Trafficking
-UNODC and UNGIFT: Anti-Human Trafficking Manual for Criminal Justice Practitioners Module 3: Psychological Reactions of Victims of Trafficking in Persons